Ainu surnames

Rather, those names were reserved for people in positions of power, nobility, or those of noted artistic ability. With this new way of thinking came a shakeup of established social systems, and all commoners were required by law to choose and register a family name for themselves.

Many chose names that were already in use, hoping to gain a little extra credibility by sharing a name with those belonging to houses of nobility.

Ainu names

Others adopted names reflecting their trade, role in society or simply the region they were from. The inclusion of this character suggests possible historical connections with the Fujiwara clanand is found in a large number of Japanese family names, though how many of said families had genuine attachments to the group is debatable. A person from the middle village, perhaps? You may have heard of : Isoraku Yamamotothe Marshall Admiral and commander-in-chief during the beginning of the Pacific War.

Yamamoto went down in history for being the man ultimately responsible for the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in Moving swiftly on…. Look out for him in the US reboot movie Godzilla too.

Another nice, easy name to write, Jin Tanaka is also a popular placeholder name for used for things like credit card ads or shady people checking into hotels where Westerners would scrawl John Smith or Jane Doe. You may have heard of : Tomoyuki Tanaka, the movie producer who brought us none other than the original and best? There again maybe they were going for something a little more symbolic rather than literal?

We may never know. You may have heard of : Come on, was there ever any doubt that our own Mr. Sato should be associated with the top spot!? Proof if it were needed that our reporter extraordinaire really is the man. There you have it, folks, the 10 most common Japanese family names. RocketNews24 Japanese. In ascending order, the most common Japanese surnames today: Moving swiftly on… 6.

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ainu surnames

Trackback URL. Jobs Contact Contribution. Post to Cancel.A people without the knowledge of their past history, origin, and culture, is like a tree without roots. Reading through the visitors book there reveals a concern common to many of the foreigners who pass that way. However, to get the full answer to many of these questions, one must go back to the beginning of the 15th century, when the Japanese Wajin began to extend their control over these lands and to oppress the estimated 40, Ainu who lived there.

Trade with the Ainu diminished, however, as they came to be seen as a people to be controlled and forced to labor in trading posts along the coastline. The herring they fished was in great demand as fertilizer for rice and other crops, and Ainu Moshir was gradually swallowed into the Tokugawa economic system. Following the Meiji Restoration inon the advice of former U.

In addition, the use of Japanese family names was made compulsory. These restrictions were enshrined in the Hokkaido Former Aborigines Protection Act, designed to forcibly assimilate and absorb the Ainu into the emperor system.

While some sections were repealed in the s, it was not until May that it finally disappeared from the Japanese statute book to be replaced by the Ainu Cultural Promotion Act. However the law failed to acknowledge Ainu calls for land or resource rights, or political demands for indigenous representation in the central or local governments.

In a recent essay, Ainu counselor Ryoko Tahara condemned the law as restrictive. It is Ainu life itself. Despite the post-war economic boom, the gap between Ainu and Wajin in lifestyle, educational and economic factors remains significant. The various general welfare measures that the Hokkaido government has attempted to implement since are considered insufficient by the Utari Kyokai Ainu Association of Hokkaido.

For instance, a Hokkaido Prefectural Government survey reports the ratio of Ainu who enter high school is However, only Tokyo Ainu Haruzo Urakawa summed up the inequality during a meeting in New England with native Americans that was sponsored by the indigenous rights group Cultural Survival.

While official counts of the Ainu population should always be treated with caution due to high levels of intermarriage, adoption and social prejudice, the same survey reported that 23, Ainu were living in Hokkaido. However, the Utari Kyokai contends the true figure is three to four times higher, and that there are between 8, and 10, Ainu in the Kanto region. Difficulty in establishing how many Ainu there are stems from a variety of reasons.

Not least of these is that some people of Ainu ancestry no longer consider themselves Ainu, even though physical differences may set them apart from Wajin. Indeed, the centuries of negative stereotyping of the Ainu sadly appear to have led to many internalizing a belief that all things Ainu are in some way inferior.

In a sense, this is even reflected in the naming of the Utari Kyokai, whose roots are in the Hokkaido Ainu Kyokai formed in as the first organization for all Hokkaido Ainu.

After a brief hiatus, this organization was revived after World War II. There have since been a number of unsuccessful attempts to restore the original name, and the issue is still hotly debated. This is because many Ainu parents hid their identity from their children, reasoning that it would protect them from discrimination. Indeed, the prejudice was so oppressively felt that some people even declared that the best thing would be for the Ainu to assimilate or simply die out.

However, cultural and political movements have been gathering momentum in the past few decades, leading to a reawakening and affirmation of Ainu culture. This has led to a stronger sense of pride, particularly among younger Ainu, who are keen to display their growing appreciation and knowledge of those traditions. Discovering a new source of ethnic pride can result in a renewed sense of identity.

Click to enlarge. Sorry, but your browser needs Javascript to use this site.Two women in traditional costumes stand opposite each other. One holds a dark eye makeup pencil, with which she is trying to draw something that looks like the famous "Joker smile" from the Batman comics on her face. The other does as she is instructed. They have come to the Japanese Island of Hokkaido, which has several Ainu reservations.

They are a very ancient people who once inhabited an enormous territory on the shores of the Pacific, including present-day Japan, Sakhalin Island, the Kuril Islands and the southern Kamchatka Peninsula. In Russia, little is known about the Ainu. That is all that is commonly known about them.

The Fascinatingly Mysterious Origins of the Ainu

Still, there are Ainu in Russia. These two women, filmed by a Russian ethnographer from the Far East, look with curiosity at the huts in a reservation, something that Russia doesn't have, while shyly telling a Hokkaido Ainu that they know how to make the fold in their costume correctly.

They don't need to be taught to do it. The "Joker smile" is a lip tattoo, a distinctive feature of Ainu women. In the past, they would start having it "scarified" from the age of seven: Using a ceremonial knife, cuts were made in the corners of the lips, and charcoal was rubbed into the cuts.

Every year several new lines would be added and the "smile" would be completed by the bridegroom at the wedding. Women also often had arm tattoos, as well.

Nowadays, they no longer do it this way. The last Ainu woman tattooed in accordance with all the rules died in Japan in Men, on the other hand, were distinguished by an abundance of facial hair.

For example, they had special sticks to support their long moustaches at mealtimes. As early as the second century BC, an ancient Chinese treatise mentioned the existence of the "hairy" people. The 18th-century Russian explorer of Kamchatka, Stepan Krasheninnikov, called the Ainu "woolly Kuril people", all because of their men. There is another curious detail: Initially, the Ainu looked more like Europeans than Asians.

Krasheninnikov himself and other early Russian explorers described them as similar to Russian peasants with dark skin or to Gypsies, but not at all like the Japanese, Chinese or Mongols. The reasons must be sought in the origin of the Ainu. But in their case, one mystery gives rise to another: No-one knows where they came from.Although only around people currently identify themselves as Ainu in Russia according to the census ofit is believed that at least 1, Russian people are of significant Ainu ancestry.

The low numbers identifying as Ainu are a result of the refusal by the federal government to recognise the Ainu as a "living" ethnic group. Most of the people who identify themselves as Ainu live in Kamchatka Krai, although the largest number of people who are of Ainu ancestry without acknowledging it are found in Sakhalin Oblast. Ainu trading expeditions with the Kamchatka Peninsula and other northern regions which today are part of Russia began very early on, despite the traditionally sedentary customs of Ainu society.

Ainu migrations to Kamchatka and the Amur River area from Hokkaido were increasingly limited after the 16th century however, as Japanese merchants and officials increasingly limited their ability to migrate.

The Kamchatka Ainu first came into contact with Russian fur traders by the end of the 17th century. The Ainu thought the Russians, who differed from their Mongoloid Japanese enemies were their friends and by midth century more than 1, Ainu had accepted Russian citizenship.

Even the Japanese failed to differentiate between the Ainu and Russian, because of physical similarities white skin and Caucasoid facial features. When the Japanese first came into contact with the Russians, they called them Red Ainu blonde haired Ainu. Only during the beginning of the 19th century did the Japanese learn that the Russians are a different group altogether. The Russians, however, reported the Ainu as "hairy", "swarthy", and with dark eyes and hair.

Early Russian explorers reported that the Ainu looked like bearded Russian peasants with swarthy skin or like the Persians. The Ainu especially those in the Kuriles supported the Russians over the Japanese in conflicts of the 19th century. However, after their defeat during the Russo-Japanese War ofthe Russians abandoned their allies and left them to their fate. Hundreds of Ainu were executed and their families were forcibly relocated to Hokkaido by the Japanese.

Only a few Ainu chose to remain in what became Russian territory after the war. As a result of the Treaty of St. Petersburgthe Kurile islands were surrendered to the Japanese, along with the Ainu inhabitants. A total of 83 North Kurile Ainu arrived in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky on September 18,after they decided to remain under Russian rule. They refused the offer by Russian officials to move to new reservations in the Commander Islands.

An agreement was reached in and the Ainu chose to settle in the village of Yavin. In Marchthe group left Petropavlovsk and began the long journey to Yavin by foot.

Four months later, they reached their new homes. Another village, Golygino, was founded later. Nine more Ainu arrived from Japan in During the Tsarist period, the Ainu living in Russia were forbidden to identify themselves by that name, since the Japanese officials claimed that all areas inhabited by the Ainu in the past or present belonged to Japan.

The Ainu were referred to as "Kurile", "Kamchatka Kurile". Under Soviet rule, anyone with an Ainu surname risked being sent to a gulag or labor camp, since they were often mistaken for Japanese. As a result, many Ainu changed their surnames to Slavic sounding ones. On 7 FebruaryK. The order was finally revoked after two decades.

The Nakamura clan South Kuril Ainu on the paternal side are the smallest and number just 6 individuals who live in Petropavlovsk. There are several dozen people on Sakhalin Island who identify themselves as Sakhalin Ainu, but many more have unacknowledged partial Ainu ancestry.

Most of the Japanese who live in Russian territory Census are of mixed Japanese and Ainu ancestry, though they generally do not claim it, since full Japanese ancestry gives them the right of visa-free entry to Japan.

It is thought that no living descendants of the Kamchatka Ainu remain today. Inthe USSR removed the term "Ainu" from the list of living ethnic groups of Russia, the government proclaiming that the Ainu as an ethnic group was now extinct in its territory.Languages evolve over space and time.

Illuminating the evolutionary history of language is important because it provides a unique opportunity to shed light on the population history of the speakers. Spatial and temporal aspects of language evolution are particularly crucial for understanding demographic history, as they allow us to identify when and where the languages originated, as well as how they spread across the globe.

Here we apply Bayesian phylogeographic methods to reconstruct spatiotemporal evolution of the Ainu language: an endangered language spoken by an indigenous group that once thrived in northern Japan. The conventional dual-structure model has long argued that modern Ainu are direct descendants of a single, Pleistocene human lineage from Southeast Asia, namely the Jomon people.

In contrast, recent evidence from archaeological, anthropological and genetic evidence suggest that the Ainu are an outcome of significant genetic and cultural contributions from Siberian hunter-gatherers, the Okhotsk, who migrated into northern Hokkaido around — years ago. Estimating from 19 Ainu language varieties preserved five decades ago, our analysis shows that they are descendants of a common ancestor who spread from northern Hokkaido around years ago.

In addition to several lines of emerging evidence, our phylogeographic analysis strongly supports the hypothesis that recent expansion of the Okhotsk to northern Hokkaido had a profound impact on the origins of the Ainu people and their culture, and hence calls for a refinement to the dual-structure model.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Patterns of linguistic variation among individuals often carry the signature of a speech community's demographic past. Accumulating evidence indicates that languages evolve by a process of descent with modification and they form into distinct families in a manner similar to their speakers forming into different ethnic groups through evolutionary history [1] — [3].

The intertwined history between languages and their speakers appears most vividly in the areas that experienced large-scale population expansions, often driven by agricultural intensification and cultural innovation since the end of the last Ice Age [4]. Recent empirical evidence supporting this phenomenon includes a range of language phylogenies reconstructed with computational methods [5] — [8].

As a result, inferences about the homeland or geographic diffusion pattern often relied on heuristic approaches such as locating a monophyletic outgroup and formulating post-hoc diffusion scenarios from the branching order. Recent progress in phylogenetic methods is, however, producing innovative ways to embed phylogenetic inference in a geographical context, and allow us to explicitly estimate both temporal and spatial aspects of evolution while accounting for phylogenetic uncertainty [9] — [11].

In this paper, we adopt these methodological innovations and directly reconstruct spatiotemporal evolution of the Ainu language: a nearly extinct language spoken by indigenous people of Japan whose origins remain obscure. Considerable debate surrounds the apparent incompatibility between the conventional model of human prehistory for the Japanese islands and the emerging evidence from modern archaeology, anthropology and genetics.

For several decades, the dual-structure model [12] has posited that similarities in dental [13] and cranial features [14] between the Ainu people and Southeast Asians meant that the Ainu ancestry originated in Southeast Asia around years before present BP [15]. Similarly, reconstructed proto-Ainu lexicons have also been suggested to share some similarities with proto-Austroasiatic lexicons [16]. Therefore, the Ainu have long been thought to be direct descendants of a single ancient Southeast Asian lineage, the Jomon, and have remained isolated from neighboring populations throughout the Holocene.

However, recent evidence from genetic [17][18]morphological [19][20]and cultural studies [21] are beginning to suggest that the Okhotsk people, a hunter-gatherer group from the Amur river basin, migrated into northern Hokkaido around — BP bringing significant genetic and cultural contributions to the preexisting Jomon, and subsequently gave rise to modern Ainu people as well as their culture.

If we accept premises i population expansions often leave its signature in the patterns of linguistic variation and ii the cultural flow from the incoming Okhotsk people had a profound impact on the language, then we can reason that spatiotemporal reconstruction of the Ainu language evolution might allow us to test the plausibility of the Okhotsk expansion scenario for the Ainu origin, and examine whether or not the dual-structure model should be modified to accommodate the Okhotsk expansion scenario.

Accordingly, we predicted that if the scenario were correct, then the estimated root age of the Ainu varieties should coincide with — BP, and their geographic distribution should be the end result of expansion from northern Hokkaido, where the gene and cultural flows from the Okhotsk to Jomon is likely to have taken place blue bar in Figure 1. It should be noted that even if the patterns of Okhotsk expansion were correct, the specific processes of language change could be interpreted in two ways see Discussion for more details.

Following the line of reasoning above, we also predicted that if the scenario were incorrect, then the Ainu language diffusion should conform to the conventional scenario and spread northward from southern Hokkaido with the root age being at least several thousand years older than BP but not beyond BP, which is the current methodological limit for tracing language ancestry. Colored circles represent two major subgroups Green-Hokkaido; Yellow-Sakhalin.

Blue bar in the center indicates the main area of the Okhotsk settlement. The data consist of 19 geocoded lists of basic vocabularies Figure 1 ; for a full list of sites, see Figure S1 compiled by Hattori and Chiri during s [22]when there was still a rich linguistic diversity among the Ainu people.

The basic vocabularies are a set of words transmitted vertically from one generation to the next [23]thereby preserving evolutionary signal required for reconstructing phylogenetic history [3][24]. Nevertheless, one could argue that the 19 varieties that we analyze here are dialects of the Ainu language and if one supposes that only languages, not dialects, constitute representative units of analysis, then using these varieties implies that the resulting tree may potentially depict a confusing branching pattern with excessive detail, or even fail to recover the actual subdivisions of the speech community [25].

We do not, however, consider this to be a major obstacle for reconstructing Ainu language evolution for three reasons: i a natural model of language evolution that we use here is known to be robust against reasonable levels of noise i.

These observations provide us confidence that the data should carry robust evolutionary signal and the 19 Ainu varieties are appropriate units of analysis for the current purpose.

Cognate judgments, a process of revealing shared ancestry among lexicons, are carried out by identifying systematic correspondences in phonetic structure and meaning [25].

For our analyses, we adopted the cognate judgments made by the two linguists who compiled the data [22].

ainu surnames

We used BEAST [32] for all analyses because it allows us to reconstruct phylogenies without specifying an a priori outgroup. Continuous random walk model we use in this paper [9][33] is a Bayesian expansion of Brownian diffusion model developed in a maximum-likelihood framework [34]. In general, a Brownian diffusion model aims to estimate the vectors of latitudes and longitudes of internal nodes i.Forgot Password?

Japan has a reputation for being about as homogenous as a country can be.

ainu surnames

But the people who would eventually become the Japanese weren't always from the island nation. They came across the sea about 2, years ago, and when they came ashore, they were greeted by the people who came before. Meet the Ainu. Today, the official population of Ainu in Japan is a paltry 25, but there's a good reason to suspect that number is quite a bit higher. That's because centuries of discrimination and forceful assimilation have led to many Japanese people with Ainu ancestry hiding that fact — or simply being unaware of it.

In fact, it was only in that the Japanese government officially recognized the existence of the Ainu as an indigenous people, although their distinct language, culture, and religious practices have survived for millennia.

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The Ainu language is unrelated to any other known language on the planet, and their religious and cultural traditions don't have much to do with any of their closest neighbors'.

They also look different from the greater population of Japan. They have thick, curly hair that often grows blond or red, their eyes range from brown to blue, and their skin is paler than their Japanese neighbors.

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And as so often happens, they've suffered terrible injustices as a result of their differences. As the country of Japan grew, the Ainu were pushed farther and farther north, until ultimately, they were relegated almost entirely to the frigid island of Hokkaido.

But inthe Japanese government took inspiration from the treatment of indigenous people in the American West. Under the Meiji Restoration, the Ainu had their traditional lands taken from them, and their language and cultural practices were outlawed. It's a depressingly familiar story, and the damage done is only recently being addressed.

It almost seems strange to talk about when the Japanese came to Japan. But human beings didn't evolve there, obviously, so at some point, they must have come over from the mainland. What we do know is that there were people on Honshu, the large central island, as early as the 14th millennium B. It does make some sense. But there are some problems with that theory as well. But one of the biggest nails in the theory's coffin was the discovery of a seed repository in southern Hokkaido.

We might never know for sure when and where the Ainu came to Japan, but we can say this for sure: Any culture that raises bear cubs like human children should definitely be taken seriously.

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Ainu Submitted Names

A Familiar Story.AustralianFinnish. People with name Ainu love freedom.

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They may overindulge in intoxicants, sex or gambling. They love socializing. More Numerology. Character Analysis of Ainu : Persons with the name Ainu are trailblazers, torch-bearers, researchers, teachers and they are who show others the way.

They are leaders, motivators and idealistic visionaries who are aware of their own innate powers. Love Life of Ainu : Generally person do not like a lot of courting and flirting but to go hard. Name Letter Analysis of Ainu.

A : Persons are their own person: ambitious and freethinking I : Persons are a compassionate person who feels things deeply N : Persons are a "think outside the box" kind of person -- creative and original U : Persons have a give-and-take kind of life. The name Ainu has Fire element. Mars is the Ruling Planet for the name Ainu. Normally, people with the name Ainu are energetic, courageous and determined. The name Ainu is suitable for baby born in Krittika nakshatra.

Yes, this is a true and a known fact that babies love the sound and voice of a female and prefer the same over the voice of the male. This might be the reason why babies are more close to their age during infancy. They remember absolutely nothing!

Babies are experts on sign language. They are able to understand the sign language much more quickly after birth than talking. Babies easily catch and understand the meaning of goodbye, hello, cuddling and kissing and waving. When babies are born, they can swim naturally.

Babies also have the ability to hold their breath for a while. Unfortunately, they lose the ability of holding breath when they start growing up. They are learning to move their fingers, limbs, toes, sucking their thumb. At times, they are dreaming and yawning etc. Name Of The Day. The name is derived from the Latin words "istunus" or "iustus", which means "just". Australian Baby Names. Australian Boy Names.


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